ref below;stout is a class of porter, it came about due to the introduction of other grains than barley being used in addition, due to a tax on malted barley.It has become associated with Ireland laterly due to its popularity there, although it was originaly a London style. Porter as a name came about because of the popularity of the beer with the dock porters.Stout because the other grains introduced gave the beer a fuller or stouter texture rather than flavour.The guiness conection at best relates to their being and early importer/exporter and modern marketing!
The is below is correct,if a little oxford. Basicly yeast is added to the "container" so that the beer continues to be live ie improve with age. Two basic types; cask and bottle conditioned.Cask will see a hand pull/pump used for dispence rather than a font,bottle condioned will need careful lable reading to identify if you dont know the brand.although there is now a "CAMRA says this real ale" labling scheme starting to appear,to help the uninitiated.
The condition of breaking wind profusely after drinking a quantity of Real Ale. After the once common British Bitter brand,probably only because of the easy rhyme though,rather than that beers effects over any other.(Pedigree is far worse for one!)